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Playbook 是一个不同于使用 Ansible 命令行执行方式的模式,其功能更强大灵活。Playbook 可定制配置,可按照指定的操作步骤有序执行,支持同步、异步方式。值得注意的是 Playbook 通过 YAML 格式来进行描述定义的。

案例拓扑

实战案例拓扑如下:

环境规划

网络环境规划如下:

角色 NAT外网IP NAT外网IP 部署软件
m01 eth0:10.0.0.61 eth1:172.16.1.61 Ansible
backup eth0:10.0.0.41 eth1:172.16.1.41 rsync
nfs eth0:10.0.0.31 eth1:172.16.1.31 NFS、sersync
web01 eth0:10.0.0.7 eth1:172.16.1.7 httpd

配置 Ansible 对应的主机

[root@m01 ~]# vim /etc/ansible/hosts
[web]
172.16.1.7
[nfs]
172.16.1.31 
[backup]
172.16.1.41

注意:上面为 Ansible 主机清单列表。

检查对应主机组和规划的 IP 是否一致

[root@m01 ~]# ansible web --list-host  
  hosts (1):
    172.16.1.7
[root@m01 ~]# ansible backup --list-host
  hosts (1):
    172.16.1.41
[root@m01 ~]# ansible nfs --list-host
  hosts (1):
    172.16.1.31
[root@m01 ~]# ansible all --list-host
  hosts (3):
    172.16.1.31
    172.16.1.41
    172.16.1.7

注意:上面命令用于检测主机清单列表是否生效。

建立对应目录站点

[root@m01 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/file

注意:上面命令用于建立存放 ansible-playbook 文件的目录。

编写基础模块的 Playbook

实现如下功能:

  1. 基础仓库准备;
  2. 安装 rsync 服务端;
  3. 安装 nfs-utils 服务端;
  4. 创建 www 用户指定 UID/GID;
  5. 准备 rsync 客户端密码文件。

建立基础环境的 YAML:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat base.yml 
- hosts: all
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
    - name: configure yum repos
      yum_repository:
        name: base
        description: base yum repo
        baseurl: 
          - http://mirrors.aliyun.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
          - http://mirrors.aliyuncs.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
          - http://mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
        gpgcheck: no
    - name: configure yum repos
      yum_repository:
        name: epel
        description: epel yum repo
        baseurl: http://mirrors.aliyun.com/epel/7/$basearch
        gpgcheck: no
    - name: Create www Group
      group: name=www gid=666
    - name: Create www User
      user: name=www uid=666 group=666 shell=/sbin/nologin create_home=no
    - name: create rsync client pass
      copy: content='123456' dest=/etc/rsync.pass mode=0600
    - name: Push backup scripts
      copy: src=./files/clinet_push_rsync.sh dest=/server/scripts/
      when: (ansible_hostname != "backup")
    - name: Cron Tasks
      cron: name=Rsync_Backup minute=00 hour=01 job='/bin/bash /server/scripts/clinet_push_rsync.sh &>/dev/null'
      when: (ansible_hostname != "backup")

使用 ansible-playbook 检测语法并进行模拟执行:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# ansible-playbook --syntax-check base.yaml
playbook: base.yaml
[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# ansible-playbook -C base.yaml 

编写应用模块 rsync 的剧本:

  1. 安装 rsync 服务端;
  2. 配置 rsync 服务端;
  3. 启动 rsync 服务端;
  4. 准备对应的数据存储仓库/backup、/data 并授权为 www;
  5. 准备虚拟用户和密码文件权限 600;
  6. 变更配置,重载服务。

准备对应配置文件存放至/etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/files/:

[root@m01 conf]# cat /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/files/rsyncd.conf 
uid = www
gid = www
port = 873
fake super = yes
use chroot = no
max connections = 200
timeout = 600
ignore errors
read only = false
list = false
auth users = rsync_backup
secrets file = /etc/rsync.passwd
log file = /var/log/rsyncd.log
#####################################
[backup]
path = /backup
[data]
path = /data

编写 rsync 服务端安装的 YAML 语法:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat rsync.yml 
- hosts: backup
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
    - name: Install Rsync Server
      yum: name=rsync state=present
    - name: Config Rsync Server
      copy: src=./files/{{ item.src }} dest=/etc/{{ item.dest }}  mode={{ item.mode }}
      with_items:
        - { src: "rsyncd.conf", dest: "rsyncd.conf", mode: "0644" }
        - { src: "rsync.passwd", dest: "rsync.passwd", mode: "0600" }
      notify: 
        - Restart Rsync Server
      tags: conf_rsync
    - name: Create Directory 
      file: name={{ item }} state=directory owner=www group=www recurse=yes
      with_items:
        - /data
        - /backup
    - name: Server Rsync Server
      service: name=rsyncd state=started enabled=yes
    - name: Check Rsync Status
      shell: netstat -lntp|grep rsync
      register: Rsync_Status
    - name: Out Rsync Status
      debug: msg={{ Rsync_Status.stdout_lines }}
  handlers:
    - name: Restart Rsync Server
      service: name=rsyncd state=restarted

编写应用模块 NFS 的剧本:

  1. 安装 NFS 服务端;
  2. 配置 NFS 服务端;
  3. 启动 NFS 服务端;
  4. 准备对应数据存储仓库/data 并授权为 www;
  5. 变更配置,重载服务。

准备 NFS 配置文件 exports:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/files/exports 
{{ share_dir }} {{ share_ip }}(rw,sync,all_squash,anonuid=666,anongid=666)

编写 NFS 安装与配置的 YAML:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/nfs.yml
- hosts: nfs
  remote_user: root
  vars:
    share_dir: /data
    share_ip: 172.16.1.0/24
  tasks:
    - name: Install NFS-Server
      yum: name=nfs-utils state=present
    - name: Configure NFS-Server
      template: src=./files/exports dest=/etc/exports 
      notify: Restart Nfs Server
    - name: Create Directory
      file: name={{ share_dir }} state=directory owner=www group=www recurse=yes
    - name: Start NFS-Server
      service: name=nfs state=started enabled=yes
    - name: Check Nfs Server
      shell: cat /var/lib/nfs/etab
      register: NFS_Status
    - name: Out Nfs Server
      debug: msg={{ NFS_Status.stdout_lines }} 
  handlers:
    - name: Restart Nfs Server
      service: name=nfs state=restarted

编写应用模块 sersync 的剧本:

  1. 安装 sersync 服务端;
  2. 配置 sersync 服务端;
  3. 启动 sersync 服务端。

下载 sersync 软件包:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# ll /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/file/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 727290 Aug  1 12:04 sersync.tar.gz

准备 sersync 实时同步的配置文件:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat /etc/ansible/ansible_playbook/conf/confxml.xml.nfs 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<head version="2.5">
    <host hostip="localhost" port="8008"></host>
    <debug start="false"/>
    <fileSystem xfs="true"/>
    <filter start="false">
    <exclude expression="(.*)\.svn"></exclude>
    <exclude expression="(.*)\.gz"></exclude>
    <exclude expression="^info/*"></exclude>
    <exclude expression="^static/*"></exclude>
    </filter>
    <inotify>
    <delete start="true"/>
    <createFolder start="true"/>
    <createFile start="true"/>
    <closeWrite start="true"/>
    <moveFrom start="true"/>
    <moveTo start="true"/>
    <attrib start="false"/>
    <modify start="false"/>
    </inotify>
    <sersync>
    <localpath watch="/data">
        <remote ip="172.16.1.41" name="data"/>
    </localpath>
    <rsync>
        <commonParams params="-az"/>
        <auth start="true" users="rsync_backup" passwordfile="/etc/rsync.pass"/>
        <userDefinedPort start="false" port="874"/><!-- port=874 -->
        <timeout start="true" time="100"/><!-- timeout=100 -->
        <ssh start="false"/>
    </rsync>
    <failLog path="/tmp/rsync_fail_log.sh" timeToExecute="60"/><!--default every 60mins execute once-->
    <crontab start="false" schedule="600"><!--600mins-->
        <crontabfilter start="false">
        <exclude expression="*.php"></exclude>
        <exclude expression="info/*"></exclude>
        </crontabfilter>
    </crontab>
    <plugin start="false" name="command"/>
    </sersync>
    <plugin name="command">
    <param prefix="/bin/sh" suffix="" ignoreError="true"/>  <!--prefix /opt/tongbu/mmm.sh suffix-->
    <filter start="false">
        <include expression="(.*)\.php"/>
        <include expression="(.*)\.sh"/>
    </filter>
    </plugin>
    <plugin name="socket">
    <localpath watch="/opt/tongbu">
        <deshost ip="192.168.138.20" port="8009"/>
    </localpath>
    </plugin>
    <plugin name="refreshCDN">
    <localpath watch="/data0/htdocs/cms.xoyo.com/site/">
        <cdninfo domainname="ccms.chinacache.com" port="80" username="xxxx" passwd="xxxx"/>
        <sendurl base="http://pic.xoyo.com/cms"/>
        <regexurl regex="false" match="cms.xoyo.com/site([/a-zA-Z0-9]*).xoyo.com/images"/>
    </localpath>
    </plugin>
</head>

编写 sersync 应用 YAML:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat sersync.yaml 
- hosts: nfs
  tasks:
    - name: Installed Sersync
      copy: src=./file/sersync.tar.gz dest=/server/tools/
    - name: Tar xf Sersync
      shell: cd /server/tools/ && tar xf sersync.tar.gz && mv GNU-Linux-x86 /usr/local/sersync
      args:
        creates: /usr/local/sersync
    - name: Config Sersync
      copy: src=./conf/confxml.xml.nfs dest=/usr/local/sersync/confxml.xml
    - name: Service Start Sersync
      shell: /usr/local/sersync/sersync2 -dro /usr/local/sersync/confxml.xml

编写 Web 应用模块的剧本:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat web.yml 
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  vars:
    remote_nfs_ip: 172.16.1.31
    local_dir: /var/www/html/
    http_port: 80
  tasks:
    - name: Installed Httpd Server
      yum: name=httpd,php state=present
    - name: Configure Httpd Server
      template: src=./files/httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
      notify: Restart Httpd Server
    - name: Start Httpd Server
      service: name=httpd state=started enabled=yes
    - name: Mount Nfs Server 
      mount: src={{remote_nfs_ip}}:/data path={{ local_dir }} fstype=nfs opts=defaults state=mounted
    - name: Push kaoshi.zip 
      unarchive: src=./files/kaoshi.zip dest={{ local_dir }}
  handlers:
    - name: Restart Httpd Server
      service: name=httpd state=restarted

将所有编写好的 YAML 引入至一个文件中, 这样便于一次执行:

[root@m01 ansible_playbook]# cat main.yaml 
- import_playbook: base.yaml
- import_playbook: rsync.yaml
- import_playbook: nfs.yaml
- import_playbook: sersync.yaml
- import_playbook: web.yaml

测试

  1. 测试 Web 是否能同步数据至 NFS 存储;
  2. NFS 是否实时同步至 rsync 的/data;
  3. 使用客户端测试能否推送数据至 rsync 的 backup。

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